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Acid Reflux

Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD; or GORD when spelling œsophageal, the BrE form) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus[1].

This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. This can be due to incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), transient LES relaxation, impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia.

Adults

Heartburn is the major symptom of acid in the esophagus, characterized by burning discomfort behind the breastbone (sternum). Findings in GERD include esophagitis (reflux esophagitis) — inflammatory changes in the esophageal lining (mucosa) — strictures, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), and chronic chest pain. Patients may have only one of those findings. Typical GERD symptoms include cough, hoarseness, voice changes, chronic ear ache, burning chest pains, nausea or sinusitis. GERD complications include stricture formation, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal ulcers, and possibly even lead to esophageal cancer, especially in adults over 60 years old.

Occasional heartburn is common but does not necessarily mean one has GERD. Patients with heartburn symptoms more than once a week are at risk of developing GERD. A hiatal hernia is usually asymptomatic, but the presence of a hiatal hernia is a risk factor for developing GERD.

Children

GERD may be difficult to detect in infants and children. Symptoms may vary from typical adult symptoms. GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems. Inconsolable crying, failure to gain adequate weight, refusing food, bad breath, and belching or burping are also common. Children may have one symptom or many — no single symptom is universal in all children with GERD.

It is estimated that of the approximately 8 million babies born in the U.S. each year, up to 35% of them may have difficulties with reflux in the first few months of their life. Most of those children will outgrow their reflux by their first birthday. However, a small but significant number of them will not outgrow the condition.

Babies' immature digestive systems are usually the cause, and most infants stop having acid reflux by the time they reach their first birthday. Some children do not outgrow acid reflux, however, and continue to have it into their teen years. Children that have had heartburn that does not seem to go away, or any other GERD symptoms for a while, should talk to their parents and visit their doctor.

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