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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it usually does not have bacteria in it.[1] When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often called cystitis. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection, known as pyelonephritis, and is much more serious. Although they cause discomfort, urinary tract infections are usually quickly and easily treated by seeing a doctor promptly.[2]

Causes

Common organisms that cause UTIs include: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Less common organisms include Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas and Enterococcus spp.

A mnemonic that can be used to remember the bacteria that cause UTIs is SEEK PP (Staph saprophyticus, E. coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas).

Symptoms

For Bladder Infections

  • Frequent urination along with the feeling of having to urinate even though little or no urine actually comes out.
  • Nocturia: Need to urinate during the night.
  • Urethritis: Discomfort or pain at the urethral meatus or a burning sensation throughout the urethra with urination (dysuria).
  • Cystitis: Pain in the midline suprapubic region.
  • Pyuria/Hematuria: Pus or blood in urine.
  • Pyrexia: Mild fever
  • Discharge from the urethra.
  • Cloudy and foul-smelling urine
  • Increased confusion and associated falls are common presentations to Emergency Departments for elderly patients with UTI.
  • Some urinary tract infections are asymptomatic.

For Kidney Infections

  • The above symptoms.
  • Emesis: Vomiting is common.
  • Back, side (flank) or groin pain.
  • Abdominal pain or pressure.
  • Shaking chills and high spiking fever.
  • Night Sweats.
  • Extreme Fatigue.

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